Shaken Baby Syndrome
Adverse Vaccine Reaction?
Many parents have
been charged with murder for allegedly shaking their babies to death,
but medical evidence suggests that vaccinations are to blame in a
large number of these cases.
Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 7, Number 6 (October-November 2000) or November-December 2000 in the
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history, mankind has been plagued by infectious diseases. With the
advent of modern biochemical antibiotics, many of these To loving,
caring parents, the act of child abuse is abhorrent. However, it
must be recognised that child abuse has occurred in the past and
inevitably will occur in the future. Medical professionals have the
unenviable task of establishing, by applying sound medical practice
and scientific evidence, if child abuse has in fact occurred.
Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) was described in
medical literature in the early 1970s1 but was
recognised as a form of severe child abuse as far back as
It is a collective term for internal head injuries which a baby or
young child may sustain from:
(a) being violently shaken (child abuse);
(b) a combination of medical problems exacerbated by a serious
vaccine adverse event;
(c) a lone serious vaccine adverse event.
According to New
Scientist,3 researchers may
be on the way to identifying a biochemical signature that can help
distinguish between brain injuries caused by accidents and those
resulting from violent abuse. Whilst this research may identify SBS,
it may not identify underlying medical problems which have been
exacerbated by a serious vaccine adverse event or a lone serious
vaccine adverse event. Unless sound scientific evidence is initiated
swiftly to diagnose the difference, parents could find themselves in
the position of a father in Sydney, Australia, who in 1995 was
charged with the murder of his child.
THE TRAGIC DEATH OF RIKKI LEE
Scott Warren Walters was charged with the murder of his
four-month-old baby daughter, Rikki Lee Walters, by allegedly shaking
the baby to death on 22 April 1995. Rikki Lee was born on 23 January
1995 at 41 weeks' gestation. The apgar scores (the scale, from 1 to
10, upon which a baby's physical health is judged) were 8 at one
minute and improved to 9 at five minutes. She was vaccinated on 19
April 1995, 72 hours prior to her death. Vaccines given were triple
antigen (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis), Hibtiter (Haemophilus influenzae),
hepatitis B and polio syrup.
The transcript of an electronically recorded
interview between the police and Scott Warren Walters is significant:
Q: Did she have any medical problems which you were aware of any
time in between those two visits to the doctors?
A: Oh, we were worried about her chest, 'cause she was, um,
breathing a bit heavy and like, we took, the doctor said she's just
got a cold.
Q: When did the doctor say that?
A: When we took her to, um, get her needles and that, she was...
Q: So, you were worried about her chest when you took her to the
A: Yeah, we were; her chest was, since she was born, like she had
a...she caught a cold, and, you know, through the month...through,
like, the second month, she's caught a cold and it hasn't gone away;
it was just...her breathing was just heavy.
The transcript of the police interview with the
mother is also significant:
Q: Did Rikki Lee receive any vaccination?
A: Yeah; the other day it was her two-month-old needles, 'cause she
had a cold when they were due; ones for polio, hepatitis B, measles
and mumps, all that type of thing.
Q: Did Rikki Lee have diarrhoea?
Q: Did she have vomiting?
A: She's always been a vomity baby after she is fed, but no more
Q: Did she have cold symptoms?
A: She's had a snuffly chest and nose, she had a really bad reaction to the needles. She only had them on Wednesday; she had a runny nose
since this. [Author's emphasis in italics.]
The fact that Rikki Lee had a bad reaction to
vaccination was also noted by the police in the "Report of Death to
the Coroner", dated 23 April 1995:
"The deceased received two-monthly injections on Wednesday 19.4.95 on
her three-monthly period because she had been sick. The deceased
then suffered a bad reaction to the injections; however, the mother
did not return her to the doctor. [Signed by constable.]"
It is noted that the medical practitioner said the
following in a statement to police:
"I cannot recall this consultation; however, it [is] my usual
practice to observe the child and ask general questions as to the child's
health. If the child had been obviously unwell with fever, the
vaccination would not have been ordered. Further, the child did not
appear to have any physical injuries or [to be] suffering from
neglect; and if the child had been, I am aware of the guidelines in
relation to [my] contacting the Department of Community Services.
The child received the vaccinations from nursing staff, as this is
usually the normal practice at the centre." [Author's emphasis in
We know that the child was ill because both
parents alluded to this fact when giving police statements. Did the
medical practitioner give adequate information to the parents on the
risks and benefits of vaccination so an informed decision could be
made? The father alleged that the medical practitioner, in a
consultation lasting three to four minutes, did not take any notes of
the consultation, did not examine the child for contraindications to
the administration of a vaccine, did not question the parents on the
health of the child, and did not explain the risks and benefits of
If the medical practitioner did not recall the
consultation, how could he remember whether there were any physical
injuries or whether the child was suffering from neglect?
Remember, the doctor took no
notes according to the
doctor made the statement: "If the child had been obviously unwell
with fever, the vaccination would not have been ordered." We know,
however, that the doctor admitted only to observing the child, so how
could he make a diagnosis of whether the child had any
contraindications for the administration of the six vaccines?
The Australian Immunisation Procedures
Handbook4 is distributed by the National Health and Medical Research
Council to give medical practitioners guidance about vaccination and
to encourage them to maintain the highest standards in the provision
of vaccination services. The 5th edition of this handbook,
distributed in October 1994, is very clear on the issue of consent
and advises practitioners that informed consent must be obtained from
the person being vaccinated or, in the case of a child, the child's
parent or guardian. The handbook advises that consent should be
obtained prior to each vaccination, after the recipient's fitness and
suitability have been established, and that the person being
vaccinated or the parent/guardian should be informed of all possible
It does appear that the medical practitioner in
this instance was clearly negligent because he did not follow
government guidelines in the provision of vaccination services. He
did not establish Rikki Lee's fitness for vaccination correctly, as
she was subsequently found to have been suffering from viral
pneumonia. Seventy-two hours later, disastrous results emerged from
Following this vaccination, Rikki Lee slept for
10-11 hours on Friday night, 21 April 1995, the night before
her death. Was this "excessive somnolence"? This is defined by
Peter O. Behan, Professor of Neurology at Southern General Hospital,
Glasgow, as "a state of drowsiness" and is an adverse reaction to
vaccination.6 He wrote: "Albeit, this may be difficult to quantitate
but, normally, mothers will be aware that the child will be difficult
to arouse, will not take its food, and most mothers will note that
the child is sleeping excessively."
According to the transcript from an additional
police interview, Scott Warren Walters was asked about feeding
details on the day Rikki Lee died:
A: ...she only, she didn't have it; she wouldn't have been two
minutes; she was on the bottle and she just...
Q: About two minutes on the bottle?
Q: And what, she wasn't interested in the food?
A: No, no.
The father admitted that Rikki Lee, following the
administration of the vaccines, had shown signs of excessive
drowsiness, projectile vomiting and diarrhoea, had not been taking
the full amount of her formula and was on continual doses of Panadol
every six hours.
DOCTORS CALLED BY CROWN LEGAL
In the case of Regina v Scott Warren
Walters,5 heard by Acting
Judge Black in the NSW Supreme Court in April 1998, the Crown called
three expert witnesses: a forensic pathologist, a paediatrician and
a neuropathology professor.
The forensic pathologist reported:
"There were no fractures of the skull; subdural haemorrhage was
present diffusely across the superior surface of the right cerebral
hemisphere. There was no evidence of bruising of the neck. There
were no fractures of the rib cage. No digested food was seen in the
intestine and there was minimal faecal material within the colon. An
X-ray skeletal survey was performed, and no evidence of old or recent
trauma or other bony disease was seen."
Acting Judge Black commented on the forensic
pathologist's testimony in his Judgment:
"Examination of the fixed eyes noted haemorrhages around both sides
of the optic nerve and diffuse retinal haemorrhages... There was
laryngopharyngitis and moderate microvesicular steatosis present in
the liver... Cytomegalovirus was isolated from a nasal swab. She
said that cytomegalovirus was a viral pneumonia which she would not
expect to cause death but would expect to cause something like a bad
cold, maybe bronchitis... She was not able to say how long Ricki Lee
had been suffering from viral pneumonia.
"The microscopic examination of the subdural haemorrhage told her
that the haemorrhage occurred within around 12 hours prior to Ricki
The forensic pathologist determined that the direct cause of death
was subdural haemorrhage occurring up to approximately 12 hours prior
to death. No antecedent causes or other significant conditions that
may have contributed to the death were listed.
In cross-examination, the following questions and answers were put
Q: And first of all, it is the case, is it not, that there is some
controversy within the medical profession about this whole issue of
shaken baby syndrome?
Q: There are those who would debunk the whole idea completely?
A: There are certain people that say that shaking alone is
insufficient to cause injuries, that there must be impact as well;
and there are others that say that the shaking is sufficient.
The paediatrician, Chairman of the Child at
Risk Committee at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, reported:
"The clinical and pathological findings
are almost certainly the result of a violent shaking injury to the
child in the short time prior to her death."
Slightly later in his report, he said this:
"The only other possible explanation for a spontaneous haemorrhage
into the brain would be some form of haemorrhagic disease such as
vitamin K deficiency in the neonatal period. I understand that she
did receive her vitamin K injection and this would virtually rule out
In his Judgment, Acting Judge Black commented
on the paediatrician's findings:
"In the course
of his evidence, the paediatrician had said that he felt strongly
about his position and I asked him to clarify what he meant by that.
He said it was not because he was trying to make out that he was
zealous about the matter; it was just that because of the range of
injuries within the brain, he felt it was consistent with violent
shaking, way out ahead of any other possibility; in terms of
percentages, something like 99 per cent, something like that.
"He was not aware that the child had been vaccinated about three days
before her death.
"He says that the presence of cytomegalovirus would not be a
contraindication for immunising the child. He said the current
advice is that immunisation should be done unless there is a
particularly serious illness.
"In relation to the microvesicular steatosis found by the forensic
pathologist, he [paediatrician] did not refer to it in his report.
He said in relation to it:
'It is not something I think I could comment on, but I think I was
concentrating largely on the injuries that were documented but it is
obviously important in the context.'
'Q: When you say you cannot comment on it, are you saying you cannot
comment on microvesicular steatosis?'
'A: Yes, I would have to be told what that is. I don't know what
"I am surprised [said Judge Black], in view of those answers, that
the paediatrician felt able to be as positive in his conclusions as
A neuropathology professor also gave evidence
for the Crown. Commenting on his testimony, Acting Judge Black wrote
in his Judgment:
"Injuries are consistent with the child having been shaken. He was
asked, 'Would it be possible for a child to have received these
injuries and to appear normal to a number of adults over a period of
hours?' A: 'Yes.' When asked to put a time frame on this, he said,
'The injuries could have happened twenty-four to forty-eight hours
prior to the arrival of the ambulance on the Saturday night'. He was
unaware that the child had been vaccinated three days prior to the
death. He noted the presence of cytomegalovirus but that did not
cause him any concern, nor did he see any relationship between that
and the vaccination.
"He did not consider whether scurvy was a problem and said, 'Scurvy
is a diagnosis that...again I am no [more] expert on the clinical
aspects of vitamin deficiencies than I am on the vitamin aspects of
brain problems, but scurvy does not normally cause any brain
It was clear from the medical evidence tendered that the
subdural haemorrhage was the cause of
death and was probably less than 24 hours
old. The retinal haemorrhage would have occurred near the time of
death and could have been caused by resuscitation. In other words,
there were two instances of haemorrhage allegedly caused by the baby
DOCTORS CALLED BY DEFENCE LEGAL
Two medical practitioners were called on behalf of the defence in the
case of Regina v Scott Warren
Dr Mark Donohoe, MB, BS, gave the following
"The contributing and unusual factors in this case do make it
difficult to attribute the intracranial bleeding to a single cause.
The range of contributing and potentially causative factors include:
hepatic mitochondrial abnormality (as evidenced by the microvesicular
steatosis of the liver); antibiotic use in the neonatal period;
cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection causing pneumonia; poor feeding and
fluid intake causing a depletion in glutathione; multiple antigen
vaccination administered while she was suffering a significant viral
infection; adverse reaction to the vaccination; the use of
paracetamol to manage her high temperature; nutritional deficiencies,
including vitamins K and C."
This is an extract from Acting Judge Black's
Judgment concerning Dr Donohoe's testimony:
"In summary, his [Dr Donohoe's] report focuses on the moderate
microvesicular steatosis present in the liver, found by the forensic
pathologist. He says this condition arises from an inherited or
acquired disorder of hepatic mitochondrial function. This was either
inherited by Rikki Lee from her mother or caused by a toxic drug
reaction. This type of hepatic damage would be expected to cause
coagulation and bleeding disorders. In his view, the administration
of an antibiotic when Rikki Lee was eleven days old, the presence of
the cytomegalovirus infection, the administration of the vaccines,
the administration of Panadol and possible vitamin deficiencies all
combined to the possible sudden onset of spontaneous bruising and
bleeding in a previously apparently healthy child.
"He disagreed with the forensic pathologist's evidence that the
steatosis of the liver was consistent with viral infection from the
cytomegalovirus. He said the literature and research in the last
five years had been fairly definitive that microvesicular steatosis
is a mitochondrial disorder.
"I [Judge Black] have considered the forensic pathologist's evidence
about this carefully, and on this issue I am not satisfied that Dr
Donohoe is wrong."
Dr Archie Kalokerinos, MB, BS, well-known
(retired) general practitioner and author of the book Every Second
Child,8 also gave evidence for the defence. This is an extract
from his testimony:
"A possible cause of Rikki Lee's death was scurvy haemorrhage
precipitated by pertussis vaccine.
"The precipitating factor giving rise to scurvy is the endotoxin
contained in pertussis vaccine, and the amount of endotoxin varies
tremendously from one batch to another. In addition, endotoxin is
more likely to be stimulated in production because bottle-fed babies
do not have normal bowel flora. Also, the administration of
antibiotics can stimulate the production of excessive amounts of
endotoxin. Vitamin C neutralises the effects of endotoxin; however,
infants exposed to endotoxin can develop a sensitivity which can
precipitate extremely acute and even fatal symptoms occurring without
"The presence of a viral infection means more utilisation of vitamin
C and probably causes the production of endotoxin in the gut. All
the factors necessary for the production of scurvy haemorrhages are
present in this case."
Regarding Dr Kalokerinos and his evidence, the
Acting Judge noted:
"He said from his own experience and from the research he had done,
haemorrhages can occur in scurvy. The haemorrhages noted by the
forensic pathologist could all have been caused by scurvy. The
vitamin deficiencies and problems arising therefrom are far more
common amongst Aboriginal and part-Aboriginal children than amongst
Caucasian people. (It is noted here that the accused's evidence was
that he was Aboriginal.) He says, in the present case, the vitamin C
deficiency was a very likely possibility, 'much more likely than any
other possibility'. He disagreed with the professor's evidence that
scurvy did not normally cause any brain pathology.
"It will be remembered that the professor had disclaimed any
expertise in vitamin deficiency. Further, the professor had not said
that scurvy could not cause any brain pathology; the words he used
were 'does not normally cause'. Accordingly, I am not satisfied
beyond reasonable doubt that scurvy cannot cause brain pathology."
Acting Judge Black, in the Supreme Court of New
South Wales, Criminal Division, in handing down Judgment on 24 April
to those two doctors [i.e., doctors for the defence], I had the
opportunity of seeing them both give their evidence and be carefully
and comprehensively cross-examined in the witness box. I have also
paid attention to the written submissions provided to me by the
respective counsel. I did not form the view that either of those
doctors was putting forward a fanciful, untenable proposition.
Perhaps, putting the burden the correct way, I am not satisfied that
their evidence should be rejected as unreliable, nor am I satisfied
that their propositions are unreasonable.
"...Suffice it then to say, in this case, having regard to all the
evidence before me including, in particular, that given by witnesses
whom I have seen, my verdict is that the accused is not guilty." [Author's emphasis
An innocent man would have been jailed in this matter if the Judge
had not found that the medical practitioners for the defence were
presenting reasonable propositions for alternative medical reasons,
including a vaccine adverse event, rather than SBS for the death of
the baby. Other accused parents have not been so fortunate.
COMPARISON WITH SBS/VACCINE CASES IN UK &
In the United States, a father has been jailed for life after a jury
found him guilty of causing SBS. Baby A.9 was born in
September 1997 and vaccinated eight weeks later with diphtheria,
tetanus, pertussis (DTP), hepatitis B, polio syrup and Hib
(Haemophilus influenzae)--exactly the same vaccines that were administered to baby
It is interesting to note that Baby A. had advanced bilateral
pneumonia, whilst Rikki Lee was diagnosed as having viral pneumonia.
Both mothers noted that their babies had chest congestion from birth
to death and had a falling-off of feeding patterns and increased
lethargy following the administration of vaccines.
Clearly, the medical condition of both babies following birth should
have precluded them from undergoing any vaccination, and especially
not six vaccines at the one time. It is obvious that the babies in
the two cases mentioned had underlying medical problems that were
exacerbated by the administration of multiple vaccines and that a
vaccine adverse event contributed to each death.
The post-mortem findings on Rikki Lee found subdural haemorrhage of
the right cerebral hemisphere and retinal haemorrhages were noted.
In the case of Baby A., the findings found subdural haemorrhages of
the right and left cerebral hemispheres as well as retinal bleeding.
It is also interesting to note that both mothers had urinary tract
infections during pregnancy and were treated with antibiotics.
The father of Baby A. is fighting for his life and is presently
seeking sufficient worldwide medical expertise to file an appeal.
Many medical professionals around the world have responded to his
request for support, including Dr Archie Kalokerinos who gave
evidence in the Walters trial.
Another tragic case in the United States is that of a mother who has
been jailed for life for allegedly shaking her quadruplets. The
naturally conceived quadruplets were born two months prematurely,
weighing around three pounds each. When the babies were three weeks
old, they were given hepatitis B vaccine--following which, all four
babies became ill and required hospitalisation. Two babies
ultimately required insertion of shunts in their brains to release
blood and fluid as a result of subdural haemorrhages.
Immediately the babies were hospitalised, the medical professionals
made a diagnosis of SBS. These four babies are now scheduled for
adoption and the maternal grandmother has been dismissed by state
authorities as a possible candidate.
In the United Kingdom, a 35-year-old lawyer was recently convicted of
the double murder of her baby sons. Christopher died in 1996 and
Harry in 1998. Sally Clark was accused of shaking Harry to death.
Because of that accusation, it was alleged that it was too much of a
coincidence to believe that Christopher did not die in 1996 in
exactly the same way, even though death at the time was attributed to
"natural causes". Harry was diagnosed with retinal haemorrhage;
however, one medical expert prior to the trial had doubts about this
diagnosis, as he claimed he had been looking at the wrong slides.
This disclosure weakened other medical experts' evidence of SBS, but
it was not sufficient to sway the jury from a verdict of guilty.
Christopher was vaccinated 23 days before his death, and Harry on the
day he died; so it is feasible that both of these babies could have
died from a severe vaccine adverse event.10
There was a divergence of medical opinion at the trial of Sally Clark
as well as at the trial of the father of Baby A. The question must
be asked whether juries are capable of understanding complex,
conflicting medical evidence empowering them to judge a person's
guilt or innocence in such cases. It is interesting to note that in
the Australian case of Walters, a Judge alone found the defendant not
ACCURATE CASE ASSESSMENT
It should be noted that SBS may not always
result in the death of a baby. In New South Wales recently, parents
of a child suffering a serious vaccine adverse event were suspected
of SBS. The baby has been removed from the care of the parents and
placed with a Department of Community Services (DOCS) foster parent.
The law in New South Wales11 gives
representatives of DOCS the right to attend on the residential
address of any parent suspected of abusing children. A
notice12 is served on them to present their child forthwith to a
nominated medical practitioner at a hospital or some other place so
specified so a medical examination of the child can take place.
Under the law, the Director-General of the Department of Community
Services may keep the child for "such period of time as is reasonably
necessary for the child to be examined". A court of law will
ultimately decide the fate of the baby, i.e., whether the baby would
be returned to the care of the parents or whether it would be
fostered out to family or other carers. Following a hearing, it is
possible that the court could refer the matter to the police. The
situation may then arise where a person is charged with a criminal
offence (SBS), even though the injuries to the baby may well have
been reported to the appropriate authorities by that person as a
serious vaccine adverse event.
It is clear that the diagnosis of SBS requires meticulous medical
investigation. This investigation will be made much more difficult
in the future with the recent endorsement by governments around the
world of hepatitis B vaccination of all newborns. As more vaccines
are released onto the market, the number of serious vaccine adverse
events--including death--will increase in our children and at a
The problem is the failure of medical professionals to recognise that
vaccine adverse events do occur and that they are guilty of labelling
them "coincidental" or "by chance".13 In Australia,
six deaths14 have been reported from vaccines in the 27-month period
from 6 June 1997 to 2 September 1999. Because of the under-reporting
and under-recognition of such events, it is likely that death and
other serious injuries occur in much higher numbers than the public
has been led to believe. In other words, it is more politically
correct to label the death or injury of a baby as SBS than to
investigate the safety and effectiveness of vaccines which are
considered by governments and the majority of the medical profession
as the only panacea for the treatment of infectious diseases.
Clinical trials prior to licensure of vaccines are
notoriously small, and this inhibits researchers' ability to
establish accurately the cause and effect relationship between
vaccines and serious adverse events. Vaccine trials are usually
funded by vaccine manufacturers themselves and are unlikely to
quantify accurately the true "risks vs benefits" ratio, lest it
reflect on sales and marketing strategies.
What is seriously lacking is independent scientific research with
large numbers of trial participants, where one half is given the
vaccine and the other half is given a placebo.
Dr Mark Donohoe, the Sydney medical practitioner who gave evidence
for the defence in the Walters trial, was very explicit in his SBS
research when he said:15
"There exist major data gaps in the medical literature regarding SBS.
These are summarised as:
Lack of clear definition of cases. There is an urgent need for
standard criteria, to identify certain cases for the purpose of
homogeneity in trials and identification of the unique features of
SBS as opposed to other abuse, other medical conditions and
Lack of useful and specific laboratory or other markers proven to
Poor definition and quantification of the social and family risk
factors to provide guidance on likelihood of abuse for a given set of
There is a strong need for a checklist or other diagnostic or
management tool to assess cases and to quantify index of suspicion of
A paper in the British
Medical Journal concluded:16
"Subdural haemorrhage is common in infancy and carries a poor
prognosis; three quarters of such infants die or have profound
disability. Most cases are due to child abuse, but in a few the cause is
[Author's emphasis added.]
The authors of the paper believe that the clinical
investigation of such children should include:
a full, multidisciplinary, social assessment;
an ophthalmic examination;
a skeletal survey supplemented with a bone scan or a skeletal
survey, repeated at around 10 days;
a coagulation screen;
a computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.
However, according to Dr Mark Donohoe:
"There is an urgent need for properly controlled, prospective trials
into SBS, using a variety of controls. Until such studies are
complete, published and replicated, the current opinion on the link
between SDH/RH and SBS cannot be sustained."
RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE LEGAL AND MEDICAL
The correct diagnosis of Shaken Baby Syndrome is a problem for those
being accused of this syndrome around the world. The cases mentioned
are only a small number that have occurred over the past few years.
It is hard to imagine the distress, confusion and despair suffered
by the accused and their families, especially those who have been
jailed for life for a crime they claim they did not commit.
Juries and lawyers rely heavily on what medical experts tell them.
If medical experts are guilty of grossly misleading a court of law by
providing skewed evidence from inadequate medical research on SBS,
then innocent individuals are suffering unnecessarily. Let us hope
that the SBS medical experts comprehend that they are not infallible
and realise the untold human tragedy that can occur if they are
The key terms in the identification of SBS
are alleged to be:17
Cerebral oedema: fluid collecting in the brain, causing tissue to
Haematoma: a localised accumulation of blood in tissues as a
result of haemorrhaging.
Haemorrhage: a condition of bleeding, usually severe.
Retinal haemorrhage (RH): bleeding of the retina, a key structure
in vision located at the back of the eye.
Subdural Haematoma (SDH): a localised accumulation of blood,
sometimes mixed with spinal fluid, in the space of the brain beneath
the membrane covering called the dura matter.
1. Gale Encyclopedia of
Medicine (Olendorf, Jeryan, Boyden,
editors), Gale Research, Detroit, MI, vol. 4, 1999, p. 2604.
2. "Abuse and Neglect of Children", Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics
(Behrman, Kliegman, Jenson, eds), W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia,
PA, 2000, 16th edition, chapter 35, p. 113.
3. Baker, Mitzi, "That was no accident:
Biochemical markers could one day help identify battered children",
28 November 1998, p. 21.
4. The Australian
Immunisation Procedures Handbook, National
Health and Medical Research Council, 5th edition, October 1994 and
revised 5th edition, 1995.
5. Regina v Scott Warren Walters, Supreme Court of
New South Wales, Criminal Division, No. 70031 of 1998.
6. Behan, Peter O., MD, FACP, FRCP (Professor of
Neurology, Glasgow University, Scotland), "Report on the Neurological
Complications of Pertussis Vaccination in Children", August 1995; and
letter from Professor Behan to Sydney solicitors, dated 13 October
1993, regarding a vaccine damage claim.
7. Dr Mark Donohoe's research on Shaken Baby
Syndrome, prepared for the case of Regina v Scott Warren Walters,
heard in Sydney, Australia, in 1998.
8. Kalokerinos, Archie, MD, Every Second Child, Pivot/Health
Books/Keats Publishing, CT, USA, 1981 (first published by Thomas
Nelson Australia Ltd, 1974), ISBN 0-87983-250-9.
9. Information provided to the writer by the
father of Baby A. in written correspondence and history, taken by
Harold E. Buttram, MD, and F. Edward Yazbak, MD, of the Woodlands
Healing Research Center, Quakertown, PA, USA, dated 25 May 2000.
10. Driscoll, Margarette, "Shadow of Doubt",
News Review, UK, 28 November 1999. The article reports that
Christopher was vaccinated on the day before his death; but Dr Viera
Scheibner has learned that the boy was vaccinated 23 days before he
died--one of the critical days, according to her studies linking SIDS
(sudden infant death syndrome) with vaccinations.
11. New South Wales Children (Care and Protection)
Act 1987, No. 54.
12. ibid., section 23, pp. 30-31.
13. The Australian
Immunisation Procedures Handbook, 7th
edition, March 2000, pp. 22, 259; also, Drs Gordon Ada and David
Isaacs, Vaccination: The Facts, The Fears, The Future, Allen &
Unwin, Sydney, 2000, pp. 91, 94, ISBN 1-86508-223-6.
14. Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged
Care, Communicable Diseases Intelligence Bulletins: 21(20):313, 2
October 1997; 21(23):364, 25 December 1997; 22(7):146, 9 July 1998;
22(10):234, 1 October 1998; 23(1):34, 21 January 1999; 23(9):255, 2
15. Dr Mark Donohoe's research on Shaken Baby
Syndrome, prepared for the case of Regina v Scott Warren Walters,
16. Jayawant, S., Rawlinson, A., Gibbon, F., Price,
J., Schulte, J., Sharples, P., Sibert, J.R., Kemp, A.M., "Subdural
haemorrhages in infants: population-based study", British Medical Journal
317:1558-1561, 5 December 1998.
17. Gale Encyclopedia of
Medicine, op. cit.
About the Author:
Maureen Hickman, JP, has been a para-legal in Sydney law firms for
over 25 years and currently works part-time at Carters Law Firm. She
is the author of Vaccination: The Right Choice? (reviewed in NEXUS
7/04, June-July 2000).
For additional background information, refer to "Shaken Baby
Syndrome: The Vaccination Link" by Viera Scheibner, PhD, published
in NEXUS 5/05, August-September 1998.
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